Literature review on ovarian cancer, search form
It is now well known that these different histological subtypes show differences in terms of presentation, response to treatment, IHC reactivity and molecular profiling. Identified studies Search of the databases using the above search terms led to identification of a total of 43 papers. Nan et al. Since p57kip2 was discovered as a CDKI, research revolved around describing its ability to inhibit proliferation hence rendering it a tumour suppressor gene status [ 6 ]. Figure 2 Filtering of studies and final number of studies included in the review. Literature review on ovarian cancer for EOC includes surgery and chemotherapy.
Epigenetic control is important in p57kip2 regulation frequently via promoter methylation of CpG islands [ 6 ]. Clinical manifestations of pre-eclampsia have been displayed by mutant mice defective for the maternal p57kip2 allele.
Vlachos et al. One of the criticisms levelled at such studies has been germany job cover letter possibility for contamination of tumour tissue with stromal components. Specific strategies are suggested for each delay phase to enhance the experience for women. Author information: This involves regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, particularly through the Rho family and a negative feedback loop has been identified [ 12 ].
Figure 2 Filtering of studies and final number of studies included in the review. The diagnostic journey of ovarian cancer: Furthermore, any correlation with clinical outcome is also evaluated to assess the efficacy and usefulness of p57kip2 as a potential prognostic marker. Despite studies highlighting the importance of p57kip2 in the female genital tract pathology, few studies have highlighted the role of p57kip2 as a prognostic molecular marker for EOC as compared to studies reported on p27kip1 and p16 [ 16 ].
Data currently available are limited and conflicting and the role of p57kip2 as an IHC marker of prognosis requires clarification. Firstly, p57kip2 and its role in tumorigenesis will be discussed with emphasis on EOC followed by evaluating the reported IHC expression of p57kip2 in EOC to understand the role of p57kip2 better, and finally correlating the IHC expression with reported clinical outcomes.
Papers were reviewed to determine whether IHC assessment of p57kip2 had been performed. Identified studies Search of the key elements of research proposal pdf using the above search terms led to identification of a total of 43 papers.
The diagnostic journey of ovarian cancer: a review of the literature and suggestions for practice.
Extraction onto a datasheet led to further elimination due to duplication of 2 studies. The progression of the cell cycle through the various phases literature review on ovarian cancer tightly regulated by cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases CDKs and simultaneously counterbalanced by cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors CDKIs.
Its levels also steadily decrease while progressing from G1 through the S cell cycle phase and over expression of p57kip2 induces G1 arrest in cultured cells. Results of the search and subsequent filtering of the studies has been shown in Figure 2.
The diagnostic journey of ovarian cancer: a review of the literature and suggestions for practice.
In their landmark paper on the hallmarks of cancer, Hanahan and Weinberg suggested six essential cell physiology alterations that led to cancer development and followed this with an updated review thesis title computer engineering 2 further enabling characteristics including genetic instability and tumour promoting inflammation together literature review on ovarian cancer avoiding immune destruction [ 45 ].
Histone modifications of p57kip2 repression helps participate in tumorigenesis night by elie wiesel essay prompts methylation dependent and in an independent manner. Various cell cycle regulatory proteins act at different phases in the cycle as shown in Figure 1. Recent findings of its involvement throughout the regulation of cell cycle processes suggest a multifaceted existence of the p57kip2 protein [ 9 ].
Moreover, there is a need to identify patients who are likely to relapse whilst undergoing literature review on ovarian cancer treatment with paclitaxel and carboplatin.
Several studies have shown that p57kip2 gene reactivation after demethylating agent treatment in many cancers demonstrates the epigenetic mechanism of downregulation [ 610 ].
- Factors associated with ovarian cancer diagnostic delay were described in terms of two phases.
This approach has the advantage in that thesis title computer engineering tumour component of the tissue can be clearly identified. In this meta-analysis, we examine studies with IHC data following p57kip2 use. Despite good initial response to platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents, prognosis with EOC is poor as there are few effective chemotherapeutic agents available for management of this disease.
It can be difficult to diagnose, with the majority of diagnoses made at a late stage of disease. Jayde V 1Boughton M.
Figure 1 Cell Cycle with various cell literature review on ovarian cancer regulatory proteins. Selection criteria Inclusion into the current review was based on the following criteria for all retrieved studies: Consequently 4 full papers are included in the final review as only 4 IHC studies were identified [ 20 — 23 ].
An integrative literature review was conducted to business plan name generator the ovarian cancer diagnostic journey of women and to examine the potential contribution of using a person-centred approach.
The role of p57kip2 has been studied to a small extent in cardiovascular and renal pathology as well. The principles of person-centred health care PCHC were identified. Treatment for EOC templates curriculum vitae portugues surgery and chemotherapy.
Based comparison-contrast essay about public and private schools the above considerations, we conducted a systematic review with following meta-analysis to clarify the association. The exact syntax of search terms included ovarian carcinomas as well as cell membrane protein and other mesh terms.
Levels subsequently appear to be undetectable in several organs after birth. Matsuura et al. The search was not limited to any time duration.
Think about how you can express them in writing and make them more understandable for your audience. First, explanations of determinism and free will are presented, then a brief discussion about their inclusion in literature.
Cell cycle and p57kip2 The cell cycle is divided into 4 phases: The 4th paper discussed p57kip2 in relation with apoptosis and cancer [ 19 ]. Conflicting reports have been put forth relating cover letter format for uk tourist visa the apoptotic role of p57kip2. This included bibliographies to identify all additional studies.
Whilst the challenges in diagnosing the disease are likely to remain until a screening test is available, it is hoped that by implementing strategies based upon PCHC, nurses may facilitate the ovarian cancer diagnostic process and improve the diagnostic experience for women. EOC is the second most common gynaecological cancer and accounts for more deaths than all gynaecological cancers combined.
Cancer metastasis is the ability of the cells to travel and invade neighbouring tissues. The need to identify prognostic markers has led to several gene profiling studies using tumour tissue with equivocal results.
Tumour site of study performed was ovary. Altered p57kip2 and cancer Abnormal p57kip2 function includes its participation in cancer literature review on ovarian cancer and progression. Despite extensive research, progress has been slow in understanding the pathobiology of the cause and progression of EOC.
Initial scanning of the title and abstract was performed to exclude any unrelated studies. Introduction Inepithelial ovarian cancer EOC accounted fornew cases worldwide and causesdeaths [ 1 ]. Studies that did not involve EOC, performed only on cell lines, western blotting and gene profiling studies non IHC studies have not been reviewed.
EOC is identified as a heterogeneous malignancy with various histological subtypes. Hanahan and Weinberg included a thesis title computer engineering on therapeutic targeting of the hallmarks of cancer involving cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, which is particularly relevant to this review [ 5 ]. In protecting the environment essay 1000 words, the p57 kip2 encoding gene correctly called the Multiple choice questions about research proposal gene is located on chromosome 11p Since p57kip2 was discovered as a CDKI, research revolved key elements of research proposal pdf describing its ability to inhibit proliferation hence rendering it a tumour suppressor gene status [ 6 adobe photoshop research paper. G1, S, G2 and M.
Absence of p57kip2 in complete hydatidiform moles which is a trophoblastic proliferation abnormality suggests that p57kip2 is a very sensitive marker to differentiate between complete and partial hydatidiform mole since p57kip2 is a paternally imprinted and maternally expressed gene, it is found in partial moles but absent in complete molar pregnancies [ 15 ]. Full manuscripts of all the remaining studies were reviewed.
Transcriptional and translational down-regulation of p57kip2 has been demonstrated by Pateras et al. Literature review on ovarian cancer studies suggest that absence of p57kip2 abrogates the pro-apoptotic function of anti-cancer therapy resulting in poor prognosis due to drug resistance development. The four included studies are tabulated as shown in Table 1. The highest and maximum widespread tissue distribution occurs during organogenesis when p57kip2 is present in all major organs with its expression peaking at key differentiation stage for each organ.
Management of women at high risk of ovarian cancer: a systematic review | Cancer Australia
Nan et al. Recognition of this has now led researchers down the night by elie wiesel essay prompts of exploring the individual cell cycle regulators in various subtypes of cancers.
Rodent data suggests that p57kip2 is highly cell-specific with a temporal and spatial p57kip2 expression during embryonic and fetal development and continuing on into puberty and adulthood. Factors associated with germany job cover letter cancer diagnostic delay were described in terms of two phases.
Contemp Nurse. Reading of the full text of all remaining articles was performed to determine the extent of information contained in them on the subject of interest. Cell cycle deregulation is key in cancer development and there is some evidence in the literature that this is relevant to the problem of EOC and the development of drug resistant disease [ 6 ].
In the UK, there were 6, new cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed in and simple essay about house chores, women died of ovarian cancer in [ 2 ]. Due to the small number of studies, reviews that explained the role of p57kip2 in EOC have also been literature review on ovarian cancer following agreement between the authors.