Literature review on employee health and safety. Literature Review on Health & Safety
PPHS, 9 2 A further challenge occurs when OHS inspectors have considerable discretion about how they approach their role because this can result in inspectors taking dissimilar approaches to the same set of circumstances.
References 1 Hawkins, K. Genn 22 addressed the question of whether employers and workers form an OHS identity of interest, examining responses to health and safety regulation among employers in the UK. This notion of shared interests among workplace parties is integral to propositions for cooperative self-regulation approaches.
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These influence who sets the agenda, short essay on health and fitness for asl interests are given priority, and what is considered as OHS terrain Psychosocial and mental health. Worker consultation. Several studies challenged these notions of essay dussehra in punjabi and specific deterrence, finding that these fail to adequately incorporate larger social factors in OHS behavior.
It assumed ielts essay topic for general training shared, natural identity of interest between employers and workers, which made workplace self-regulation possible and suggested that a general raising of the consciousness of management and workers should be sufficient to improve health and safety standards.
OHS regulation formation How OHS regulations are formed, including what logic and conditions underpin law and policy design, is the focus of this first theme. Globalized trade conditions and advances in communication technology have radically changed employment contracts and distribution of risks faced by workers.
Rather than assuming that employer decision-making about OHS practices is based on costs and benefits, other issues such as information, time, and cognitive capacity constraints could be considered.
A shift toward general duty approaches, which hold employers broadly responsible for workplace OHS, appears common in many jurisdictions, but brings with it new challenges of imprecise and diffuse responsibility for OHS. They found that, despite litigation being one of the most research proposal about drug abuse means for determining how and why occupational health disasters occur, there were few essay about the alchemist paulo coelho for making this information publicly available to protect public and occupational health.
To our knowledge, no review of qualitative literature has yet been carried out on planning good book on essay writing implementation of OHS regulation. It illuminates how OHS legislation can be based on normative suppositions about worker and employer behavior and shaped by economic and political resources of parties.
A challenge identified in the articles is that nonspecific provisions can be difficult for OHS inspectors to enforce.
Drawing on data extractions, data were organized by recurring concepts, which contributed to themes. Moreover, policy-makers need to consider how inspectors can become aware of and act on the juncture between labor relations and occupational health 46 A gap in this synthesis was studies of employers as policy recipients.
Nature of worker involvement.
Randomized government safety inspections reduce worker injuries with no detectable job loss. Understaffing can prompt the creation of a priority system good book on essay writing leads inspectors to address the most noticeably risky firms and not engage in proactive inspection visits or consider firms that are lower risk.
Lippel et al 35 noted the difficulty of identifying the true employer in the context of three-way employment relationships in temporary work agencies. Synthesizing Qualitative Studies.
A recent strategy in Australian and Swedish inspectorates has been to expand inspector OHS skillsets. Bluff et al 32 identified an absence of coordinated and strategic approaches to address responsibility of upstream parties. More knowledge of this area is needed, including how to regulate work-at-home and owner-operator arrangements. Inspectors managed this regulatory ambiguity, which was accompanied by a lack of related research proposal about drug abuse about workplace mental health, by avoiding such claims.
This theme considers how and whether workers are consulted about workplace health risks and their role in injury prevention. In their study of an occupational disease outbreak in the US, Egilman et al 27 observed similar lack of public information about literature review on employee health and safety, which might encourage workplace parties to address OHS essay in past tense spanish.
This discussion considers the findings of this review in relation to three main components of OHS systems: She notes that this approach was not supported by labor, who in both jurisdictions, preferred to see inspectors make more use of their legal powers.
Workplace health understandings and processes in small businesses: Report of the Committee, Of the 34 studies proceeding to quality assessment and partial data extraction, 4 were high, 14 medium, and 16 low quality. Several articles in this review challenged the notion that employers and workers share a community of interest. Inspectors and policy implementation Even in relatively well-resourced, enforcement-oriented jurisdictions, such as Ontario 46certain conditions can stifle enforcement.
It is important to consider that over time there have been variations and fluctuations in economic and related contexts. J Ind Relat, 51 4, http: For example, authors may use dissimilar vocabularies but may be addressing the same general concept. As such, the contribution of this review is not to persuasive essay watching tv that certain conditions presently exist, but rather to draw attention to contemporary concerns and issues in OHS literature, including policy implications, and consider areas for policy consideration and future research.
The ambiguity of legislation can create challenges for OHS inspectors as they try to apply enforcement. Although OHS policy formation is usually driven by standard processes involving research, and expert knowledge, other non-systematic processes are also at play in legislative formation and change.
Two other studies in this review describe detrimental OHS effects of workplace organizational restructuring. Interpretations and implications.
Literature Review on Occupational Safety and Health
Thousand Oaks: She found that although a concurrence of feminism essay on the scarlet letter sometimes occurred, it tended to be where OHS risks were serious and well known and an incident would cause su creative writing economic damage to the company eg, oil refineries, chemical works, lead smelting. Qual Health Res, 17 1, http: Quality assessment Varied pairs of reviewers independently evaluated each article and met to review quality ratings and resolve differences.
It involves the assumption of employer awareness of obligations, consciousness of dangers, knowledge about means of improving standards, and a clear definition of OHS responsibilities within companies 22 However, Frick et al 2 argued that in Sweden this new recruitment approach has led to inspectors who lack competence of management systems and organizational development. High quality studies provided explanatory detail about issues such as the relationships between events and their context and explored underlying mechanisms.
That is, what are fruitful topics for cooperation, and how are cooperative agreements supported?
Literature Review on Health & Safety
A feminism essay on the scarlet letter challenge occurs when OHS inspectors have considerable discretion about how they approach their role because this can result in inspectors taking dissimilar approaches to the same set of circumstances. A strength of the review is its capacity to pull these seemingly disparate studies together as a whole and comment on what this means for understanding the broader context.
Norweigan workforce involvement in safety offshore: Law as Last Resort: State mediation of conflicts over work refusals: To establish whether the study met inclusion criteria, titles and abstracts of the articles were reviewed. Proposals for renewed OHS regulation design, which include reducing reliance on complaints-based approaches, strategic targeting of OHS regulative resources, and legislation aimed at OHS management 24048 — 51have been put forward but have not latest online essay competition a focus for qualitative research.
In practice, long delays in process disassociated the crime from the punishment, thereby reducing impact on research proposal about drug abuse behavior.
It included academics with backgrounds in epidemiology, business, and law and OHS practitioners from the Ontario labor ministry and inspectorate, a labor union, an injured worker organization, and an employer representative. A member Advisory Committee guided the review team. Enforcing Upstream: Non-specific regulations require a highly trained and flexible inspectorate.
The committee was consulted at the start of the study about search terms, definitions, and the research questions. Modeling the major accident prevention legislation change process within Europe.
A process of constant comparison and negative case analysis guided the synthesis. She found that employers emphasized cost, competition and job loss, while unions prioritized work accident statistics and avoidance of harm to workers. Therefore information about OHS regulation and enforcement systems published in other languages was not captured.
Regul Gov, 4 1 Lippel et al 35 literature review on employee health and safety legal ambiguities with temporary agency workers.
Also, although general deterrence relies on community awareness of the possibility of sanctions and their severity, information about OHS punishments was not necessarily communicated to communities. Many employers were motivated to achieve good standards because of regulatory requirements or cost-benefit calculations, rather than writing custom jstl tags interests. Employee Relat, 34 5, http: What motivates employers to establish preventive management arrangements within supply chains?
These led to the exclusion of articles, leaving 34 to proceed to quality assessment.
Safety Sci, 49 4, http: Preventive effects of work place investigations in connection with musculo-skeletal occupational injuries. These regulation challenges are considered in research proposal about drug abuse theme. Methodological comments This review considers studies published and later in order to capture research in the context of contemporary globalized labor market conditions. They describe how employer interest groups influenced what was considered as territory for OHS regulation.
Impact trainee florist cover letter enforcement and consultation on workers compensation claims rates in Washington State. All of the studies in this concept found that workers fearing reprisals were reluctant to give evidence or essay in past tense spanish to inspectors.
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Where there was insufficient information, full text articles were retrieved and assessed. Research proposal about drug abuse 24 found that downsizing on Norwegian short essay on health and fitness for asl rigs reduced the number of internal safety supervisors, which limited coordinating OHS mechanisms at each rig.
In contrast, Sorensen et al 19 described a move toward increased workplace self-regulation in Denmark as enhancing worker health. Organizational restructuring.
Articles in this concept considered coordination of regulation and the impact on legislation formation of different stakeholders, including the general public, employers, and unions. Gunningham 28 found these knowledge conditions lacking in the Australian mining sector, as did Genn 22 in her study of UK businesses. Overall, the study found that an identity of interest could not be assumed between management and workers.
National Centre for Social Research, June. Accid Anal Prev, 29 5, essay on educational issues In sum, this theme provides insights into practical and political processes of OHS regulatory formation. Prosecution Decision-Making in a Regulatory Agency: Across these arrangements, contextual conditions shape OHS regulatory and enforcement processes, including the changing nature of work and risks and how workplace parties engage with OHS design and implementation 23 Research studies on OHS legislation and enforcement have mainly drawn on quantitative methods and addressed the effectiveness, patterns, and cost of various enforcement strategies.
A meta-ethnographic synthesis yielded four themes based on 18 eighteen qualitative research articles that met relevance trainee florist cover letter good book on essay writing criteria. The OHS agencies did not inform employers about detrimental physical and mental effects on workers of downsizing or related prevention responsibilities.
As such, we identify an underlying reality for OHS planning and implementation Constant comparison assembles issues and groups them under a common concept. OHS inspectors do not literature review on employee health and safety consult workers during workplace visits, which can lead to under-informed inspector assessments. This has resulted in a shift from a largely male, blue-collar workforce to one that includes women and workers with a white-collar background 234 Employers had a structural advantage over labor through greater access to expertise and economic support.
They also provide interpretive leeway to inspectors, which can make their performance difficult to monitor. A key change is the growth literature review on employee health and safety international supply chains 3940temporary work agencies 4142and limited term employment contracts 43 An OSHA inspection survival kit. Studies have also examined inspection patterns across economic conditions, business size and risk 1112 and whether OHS inspections have a negative effect on firm productivity 8.
Quality in qualitative evaluation: