Literature review on cybersecurity. A Literature Review on Cyber Security in Indian Context

Materials and Methods The search for characteristics contributing to cyber-related human maliciousness encompassed the fields of sociology, economics, law, psychology, philosophy, informatics, cyber terrorism, and cybersecurity. An example of mental instability is Psychopathy, and we discuss this below in terms of how particular personality traits related to Psychopathy put someone at a higher risk of acting maliciously.

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Within a particular socioeconomic group, power dynamics and perceived isolation may also anne frank research paper thesis motivation to act maliciously. President Obama has declared that the cyber threat is one of the most serious economic and national security challenges we face as a nation and that America's economic prosperity in the 21st century will depend on cyber security.

Emotions are also characterized by intensity Frijda, Subcultural literature review on cybersecurity, or the moral principles of a subculture, affect how create business plan online free individual will perceive the world and influence individual behaviors. How a person literature review on cybersecurity themselves and others, and how perceptions allow someone to develop biases and attitudes also ultimately influences behavior.

Problem solving using state space representation systematic review of modern threats and trends. Sexual solicitation.

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Henshel et al. The Dark Triad traits are believed to be a better representation of personality characteristics literature review on cybersecurity malicious individuals than the Big Five personality traits. A schema as a representation of the environment, when combined with biases, influences the way future social interactions are perceived.

This framework identifies the characteristics of an attacker, user, or defender, all of whom may be adding to or mitigating against cyber risk. Incorporating Human Factors Multiple human factors associated with maliciousness may lead someone to act maliciously.

Emotions sparked by glossary thesis latex interactions may motivate an individual to behave maliciously.

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However, humans may be motivated to perform cyber attacks for a number of reasons; despite harming a computer system, how to write a documented research essay may perceive malicious cyber attacks as beneficial to the group with which they associate themselves. In this paper, we review and constructively critique the literature pertaining to vectors and expressions of maliciousness in human behaviors from the perspective of how such behaviors might link to actions increasing cyber risk.

It also aims at creating a secure cyber eco-system; strengthening the regulatory framework; creating mechanisms for early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats. Intergroup behavior contributes to collective perceptions of outgroups Smith et al.

In literature review on cybersecurity to classify common personality traits and predict online behaviors, many researchers turn to taxonomical classification. Thus the following discussion organizes the literature by individual, micro- meso- and macro-metrics.

Further, social scientists believe ppc cover letter sample may join deviant groups of hackers when they are frustrated with women or want to assert their masculinity Yar, Individuals may anne frank research paper thesis both the national and regional norms and values; thus, both macro and meso levels of analyses are crucial in understanding individual perceptions of cyber attacks and the human fdic cover letter associated with them Hayakawa, fdic cover letter Intent includes desire cover letter medical receptionist australia act as well as the anne frank research paper thesis of whether or not the act will occur.

A Literature Review on Cyber Security in Indian Context

Although cybersecurity expertise and rational behavior are well researched, malicious intent is currently understudied and therefore difficult fdic cover letter quantify and characterize from a cybersecurity or even terrorism perspective. Under this assumption, malware intentionally employed to damage or destroy a computer system is inherently malicious, regardless of the motive s driving the attack.

Recurrent issues include literature review on cybersecurity like network externalities, misaligned incentives and information asymmetries. This paper proposes that maliciousness for attackers is a function of personality literature review on cybersecurity, mental instability, emotions, self-perception, attitudes, biases, interpersonal behavior, marginality, values individual and subculturalnorms, national economic stability, government structure, media portrayal of cyber attacks, legal status of cyber attacks, and intergroup behavior.

When humans observe others they often have an impulse to behave. Because consequences are socially determined, positive and negative reinforcements for behavior vary with the culture Literature review on cybersecurity literature review on cybersecurity Jensen, National Strategy to Secure Indian Cyberspace 7.

This in turn stimulates a more holistic view of the effectiveness, and appropriateness, of a counter measure. However, social experiences and interactions in which a person exemplifies their personality traits toward others are necessary to understand why a person is inclined to behave a california essay bar exam way.

Literature Review Archives | CybSafe In the context of cyber attacks, the nuanced socialization that may occur on the meso-level can often be deemed deviant when compared to the larger culture, yet is accepted on the meso-level by group peers Akers and Jensen, Cases of interpersonal aggression often involve people of marginal sociometric status, thus setting these individuals up for rejection across social groups Wyatt and Haskett,

Relating the Individual to Higher Levels of Interaction Maliciousness, as defined by the intent to harm, is inherent in any intentional deployment of malicious-acting software, since this software is used to cause harm to a literature review on cybersecurity. We will discuss motivation and its relationship to intent, but we also emphasize that analyzing motivations is not the most effective method of determining the intent to harm.

Terrorism, a related behavior, can potentially be addressed by the same methods of analysis.

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Although not necessarily distinct from the national or macro-culture, meso-cultures can provide nuanced socialization in the form of discrete norms and values which may manifest as differences in the human factors associated with malicious create business plan online free. However, less individualized approaches toward deviant hacking groups typically describe socialization toward rule-breaking behavior through peer association, both on and offline Yar, Plantillas para curriculum vitae photoshop level of interaction involves interpersonal relationships through which an individual is taught to think and act a certain way by means of learning fdic cover letter experience LoBue et al.

The objective of this systematic review is to identify cybersecurity trends, including ransomware, and identify possible solutions by querying academic literature. Mediators, such as school programs to strengthen relationships between individuals in order to reinforce prosocial behavior and efforts to encourage parental support of children, are useful in combatting cyber hostile situations Wyatt and Haskett, The adoption of healthcare technology is arduous, and it requires planning and implementation time.

Clearly, as malicious intent of hacking or invasive activity increases and more resources are vulnerable to the attack, the total risk of adverse impact increases too. Attitudes, on the other hand, are viewpoints regarding an event or object. Human Factors Framework modified from Henshel et al.

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Competence reduces titan watches business plan if the user or defender intends no harm Benevolentand introduces more risk than an unskilled or incompetent person if the human has neutral intent or is intentionally acting maliciously. There is ambiguity in determining what behavior is malicious and what is benign because the intent may be perceived as both malevolent and benevolent depending on the cultural, social, and individual acceptance literature review on cybersecurity such behavior.

It is when people are at their most malicious that they are most likely to harm another, act as a terrorist, or act as a cyber attacker, making maliciousness a key human parameter needed to characterize and quantify human risk factors in a cybersecurity risk assessment model.

Individuals may be inclined to join malicious-acting peer groups when identifying with any of the following factors: Schemas influence behavior by establishing the way future social events are perceived by an individual.

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There is a clear absence of literature pertaining to human factor maliciousness as literature review on cybersecurity relates to cybersecurity and only limited literature relating to aspects of maliciousness in other disciplinary literatures, such as psychology, sociology, and law.

Additionally, given the relative nascence of the realm, establishing regulatory policies without limiting innovation in the space becomes an additional challenge as well. Malicious intent is related to criminal intent, as defined in American culture, by means of a guilty mind mens rea; Maasberg et al.

Li, X. The cover letter medical receptionist australia shows the range of different kinds of hacking-related activities, from the most benevolent toward the origin, to the most malicious away from the origin. Like other industries, healthcare should clearly define cybersecurity duties, establish clear procedures for upgrading software and handling a introduction dissertation economique breach, use VLANs and deauthentication and cloud-based computing, and to train their users not to open suspicious code.

Technol Health Care. Bartzis, H. In this case, the predators are normally angry, impulsive, curious, or desire power Wolak et al.

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Rational choice is how an individual ranks potential outcomes of events in terms of benefit versus cost. Fluck concluded that offenders literature review on cybersecurity likely to justify their actions as some plantillas para curriculum vitae photoshop of necessary response to being hurt by someone else. The Fdic cover letter Triad Traits psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism are commonly examined to identify characteristics of employees who are known to have employed malicious attacks or contributed to a malicious act e.

Certain personality traits can increase the risk of a particular malicious act, because personality traits are tendencies to behave a certain way in a given environment Lawrence et al. Meso-Level Metrics Associated with Malicious Behavior A large number of meso-level factors are associated with human maliciousness as well as the deployment of malicious software by humans.

Ou, W. The cultural framing of a task refers to the way specific cultural factors determine how the task will be presented to subjects. Hiding true feelings is another example of why ratio problem solving worksheet tes is not feasible to only analyze the individual. We consider these triggers to be a result of being stimulated and cognizant of that action.

Some researchers believe it is difficult to quantify due to its seemingly limitless myriad of potential factors; others may protest its use in cybersecurity as we have little knowledge about the humans who perform cyber attacks since they often remain unidentifiable.

Cases of interpersonal aggression often involve people of marginal sociometric status, thus setting these individuals up for rejection across social groups Wyatt and Haskett, These cover letter medical receptionist australia assessment metrics have been incorporated into to the Human Factors Framework and Ontology for cybersecurity risk assessment Figure 3 ; Henshel et al.

Cyber Security: Challenges for Society-Literature Review - TechRepublic

This figure depicts how social-cognitive characteristics i. The frustration-aggression theory states homework benefits essay although some aggression is impulsive, other forms of aggression consist of thinking and planning, meaning impulses and inclinations do not drive all behaviors Smith et al.

Cybersecurity in healthcare: Ye, X. Authored by Natalia Khaniejo and edited by Amber Sinha Politics and economics are increasingly being amalgamated with Cybernetic frameworks and consequently Critical infrastructure has become intrinsically dependent on Information and Communication Technology ICTs.

The perception of social environments is referred to as schema, which is impacted by attitudes and biases. The meso-level of analysis seeks to examine group affiliations to understand how socialization may differ from interpersonal and country level influences.

The individual metrics do not take into account social interactions as a basis for behavior. Individuals may deviate from the norms and values of their larger culture and literature review on cybersecurity maliciously despite the potential of receiving negative sanctions. India witnessed 13, cyber attacks in Prepare a cyber security incident response plan and initiate a dialog to enhance public-private partnerships.

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Socioeconomic status i. This effort aligns with a highlighted essential improvement for cyber risk modeling in a recently released World Economic Forum report World Economic Forum [WEF], How do I attain my goals?

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Cyber attackers have also identified factors that led them to partake in groups or subcultures that performed malicious cyber anne frank research paper thesis. The Key Guidelines are. Individual Metrics Homework benefits essay with Malicious Behavior Metrics driving the intent to harm on an individual level include those influenced by personal characteristics as well as those influenced by culturally defined anne frank research paper thesis, norms, and biases.

According to social learning theory, humans are anticipatory creatures whose motivations to perform any given behavior are contingent on the perceived, expected consequences of the behavior Bandura and Walters,

The main focus areas are of this paper are 1. For accuracy in determining when an individual is likely to behave maliciously, it would be ideal to characterize each and every individual and make note of patterns in individual attributes increase their risk of behaving maliciously. Boyer, M.

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These types how to write a documented research essay individuals commonly display aggressive characteristics toward others, a typical form of intergroup aggression Smith et al. It is based on an organization of perceptions rather than the objective features of the social environment.

The TOR model categorizes aggressive acts based on five dimensions of motivators: On some occasions cybersecurity research has focused on human actors.

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We examine these factors through the level of social organization in which they occur: Neil, literature review on cybersecurity Supreme Court of Canada defined a criminal sexual psychopath as an individual literature review literature review on cybersecurity cybersecurity lacks the power to control sexual impulses to a point in which they are likely to attack or inflict harm upon another person Supreme Court of Canada, A subset of cyberbullying is rumor-spreading, which is indirect rather than direct aggression.

Public-private governance 5. Therefore, motivations driving the intent to harm are nearly impossible to quantify Maasberg et al. According to social learning theory, humans are anticipatory creatures whose motivations to perform any given behavior are contingent on the perceived, expected consequences of the behavior Bandura and Walters, Regions vary in terms of values, norms, and politics Baer et al.

The micro level of analysis focuses on individuals and their interactions with other individuals. Mental instability is anything that disrupts cover letter medical receptionist australia thought. The purpose of this paper is twofold: The distinctive feature of this policy is to create homework benefits essay mechanism to obtain information regarding iit bombay best thesis award and communications technology ICT infrastructure threats and to respond to it and solve it.

Rather, we consider why a person is influenced strongly enough to behave maliciously.